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It was later found to occur naturally in tiny amounts on Earth and in meteorites.
Other forms—such as coke—are sometimes called amorphous, but X-ray examination has revealed that these substances do possess a low degree of crystallinity.
Carbon is widely distributed as coal and in the organic compounds that constitute petroleum, natural gas, and all plant and animal tissue.
A natural sequence of chemical reactions called the carbon cycle—involving conversion of atmospheric carbon dioxide to carbohydrates by photosynthesis in plants, the consumption of these carbohydrates by animals and oxidation of them through metabolism to produce carbon dioxide and other products, and the return of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere—is one of the most important of all biological processes.
The following products result: (1) diamond proper—distorted cubic crystalline gem-quality stones varying from colourless to red, pink, blue, green, or yellow; (2) bort—minute dark crystals of abrasive but not gem quality; (3) ballas—randomly oriented crystals of abrasive quality; (4) macles—triangular pillow-shaped crystals that are industrially useful; and (5) carbonado—mixed diamond–graphite crystallites containing other impurities.
The successful laboratory conversion of graphite to diamond was made in 1955.
(Coals are elemental carbon mixed with varying amounts of carbon compounds.